By the 1880s, the most prominent American watch companies offered special named movements and dials for retailers, jobbers, and wholesalers who desired a custom watch for their customers.
The 1886 Robbins & Appleton Catalog Price List provides the policy and pricing on these “private label” custom watches:
“Orders will be accepted for Special Named Waltham movements in all full plate grades and will require about one month for delivery.
A charge of 40 cents each will be made for naming all seven jewel movements, and orders for less than five of these grades will not be accepted.
Other grades of movements named free of charge, and orders accepted for any quantity.
Special named Dials fifty cents list extra.”1886 Robbins & Appleton Catalog Price List